Colorings are added to food to replace colors lost during preparation or to make food look more attractive.
Preservatives prevent or inhibit spoilage of food due to fungi, bacteria and other microorganisms.
Antioxidants such as vitamin C are preservatives by inhibiting the degradation of food by oxygen.
Thickening agents are substances which, when added to the mixture, increase its viscosity without substantially modifying its other properties. Emulsifiers allow water and oils to remain mixed together in an emulsion, as in mayonnaise, ice cream, and homogenized milk.
Acidity regulators are used to control the pH of foods for stability or to affect activity of enzymes.
Flavor enhancers enhance a food's existing flavors. A popular example is monosodium glutamate. Some flavor enhancers have little flavor independent of the food.
An antibacterial is an agent that inhibits bacterial growth or kills bacteria.
Sweeteners are added to foods for flavoring. Sweeteners other than sugar are added to keep the food energy (calories) low, or because they have beneficial effects for diabetes mellitus and tooth decay and diarrhea.
Native starch is a powder obtained from plants containing starch. It is used as a thickening agent and a stabilizer. Good examples of this include custard, desserts, sauces and many forms of instant foods.
Modified starches are obtained from native starches as a result of physical, enzymatic or chemical processing methods. Wet and dry chemical processes, drum drying and extrusion methods are all used. The properties of native starch such as its freeze-thaw stability, acid or alkali resistance or even its shear stability can be changed by means of these processes. Depending on the raw materials used starch is used for different applications.
Flavors are additives that give food a particular taste or smell, and may be derived from natural ingredients or created artificially.